Historical Development – Question and Answer

1. Define : management.

According to Knootz and Weihrich “Management is the process of designing and maintaining of an organisation in which individuals working together in groups efficiently accomplish selected aims”.

2. Define Administration

According to E.F.L Breech “Administration is that part of management which is concerned with the installation and carrying out of the procedures by which the programme is laid down and communicated and the progress of activities resulted and checked against plans. This Breech concerns administration as a part of management”.

3. Distinguish between Management and Administration.
Administration Management
It is higher level functions It is lower level function
It refers to the owners of the organisation It refers to the employees.
Administration is concerned with decision making Management is concerned with execution of decision
It acts through the management It acts through the organisation
Administration lays down broad policies and principles for guidance Management executes these policies in to practice.
4. What is system approach management?

The system approach views the organisation as a unified, purposeful system composed of interrelated parts. This way the manager can look at the organisation as a whole or a part of the larger outside environment. Activity of any part affects all other parts of the organisation. A syatem can be biological or social.

5. What is scientific management?

Fredrick Winslow Taylor is called “Father of scientific management”. Taylor attempted a more scientific approach to management as well as the problems and the approach was based upon four basic principles.

  • Observation and measurement should be used in the organisations.
  • The employees should be scientifically selected and trained.
  • Due to scientific selection and training, an employee has the opportunity of earning a high rate of pay.
  • A mental revolution in the form of constant cooperation between the employer and employees should be given the benefits of scientific management.
6. What is Multinational Corporation (MNC)?

“An enterprise which own or control production or service facilities outside the country in which they are based”.

7. What is globalization?

All these policies measured clearly reflect the changing attitude of government towards business and the commitment of government to integrate indian economy with the world’s economy is called globalization.

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Santhakumar Raja

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