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Refrigerator

Basic Thermodynamics of Refrigerators and Heat Pumps

The ideal body having large thermal energy capacity which either continuously supplies or absorbs the infinite amount of heat without changing its temperature is called thermal energy reservoir or heat reservoir. If...
Kelvin planck statement

Statements of Second Law of Thermodynamics

The second law of thermodynamics is stated in two ways. Kelvin Planck statement and Clausius statement. Kelvin Planck Statement The Kelvin Planck statement can be expressed as "It is impossible for any device...
Steady Flow Energy Equation (SFEE)

Steady Flow Energy Equation (SFEE)

Consider an open system through in which the working substance flows as a steady rate as shown in figure. The working substance entering the system at (1) and leaving the system...

First Law of Thermodynamics – Applications to Open Systems

In any systems, the rate of flow of working fluid is constant with respect to time, then the system is known as steady flow system. In this system, the mass of...
Thermodynamics - Paddle wheel mechanism

Second Law of Thermodynamics – theteche.com

According to the first law of thermodynamics, all forms of energy are equivalent. One form of energy can be converted into other form and any process is possible as long as...
Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics

Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics – theteche.com

Zeroth law of thermodynamics states, "When two bodies are in thermal equilibrium with a third body separately, they are also in thermal equilibrium with each other". As shown in figure let, a...

Baseband and Passband Transmission – theteche.com

The message signal generated from the information source is also called baseband signal. The baseband signal can be a combination of two or more message signals. If the baseband signal is...

Communication Channel – theteche.com

As we have seen in the preceding sections, the connection between transmitter an the receiver is established through communication channel. We have seen that communication can take place through wirelines, wireless...
Basic Digital Communication System

Basic Digital Communication System – theteche.com

Fig shows the basic elements of a digital communication system. The source and the destination are the two physically separate points. When the signal travels in the communication channel, noise interferes...
Electromagnetic spectrum

Electromagnetic Waves : The Carriers of Electric Signals

We know that electromagnetic waves have two fields. One field is electric field and other is magnetic at 90°. The direction of propagation of those waves is perpendicular to both electric...